High-level Overview of Fraud-proof

Protocol Spec pages describe how public blockchains securely scale with fraud-proof technology in general. This page is for those that want to start with looking at a bigger picture of Gazelle's underlying scaling technology.

Basic Terminologies

  • Merkle tree: a data structure that allows efficient and secure verification of large data, only requiring log(n) of computation where n is the number of leaf nodes in the tree. It is important to highlight that in Plasma, Merkle tree's every leaf node is labled with a hash of off-chain transactions offloaded from the mainchain.
  • Merkle inclusion proof: a list of hash, which proves that a particular off-chain transaction was actually included in a Merkle tree. Aggregator gives a Merkle inclusion proof to L2 clients. L2 clients use Merkle inclusion proof and corresponding Merkle root to check whether a transaction has actually been included or not. Data size of Merkle inclusion proof and the computation to check the inclusion are both log(n) where n is the number of leaf nodes in the tree.
  • Interactive dispute game: a game played between a claim prover and its opponent. The game is judged by a smart conract using the on-chain data and proofs submitted by Plasma clients.
  • Dispute period: period that the dispute game is played. Users have to wait this period to withdraw their assets.